While commonly credited to Edward Victor, this effect was first published in Jean Hugard's More Card Manipulations, No. 3, 1940, p. 17, as an addendum describing an application by Francis Carlyle to a method for false counting. The comedy repeated multiplication-of-cards effect may be classified as a variant of Tommy Tucker's “Six-Card Repeat”. Indeed, Hugard mentions that effect after describing Carlyle's trick.
Edward Victor's popular “Eleven-Card Trick” was published as booklet No. 6 of Willane's Methods for Miracles, 1952. The first sentence of this booklet reads “This trick has been a great favorite of the originator, who has used it for many years.”
Before Victor's routine was published, “Super Count Routine”, a collaboration by Al Keene and Edward Marlo, appeared in Marlo in Spades, 1947, p. 47. Phases of the Keene-Marlo routine have a strong resemblance to Victor's. A possible connection may have been Al Keene, who was stationed in Europe in 1946 (see Hugard's Magic Monthly, Vol. 4 No. 2, July 1946, p. 236) and may have learned of the Victor routine while there. That Victor may have learned of Keene's idea, while less likely, cannot be entirely ruled out. In any case, Victor's claim of having performed the trick “for many years” strongly suggests he preceded Keene and Marlo, and possibly Carlyle. The absence of any argument by or for Keene, Marlo or Carlyle preceding Victor also has bearing on the case.
Later versions of the Eleven-Card Trick that have gained notice are “The Derek Dingle Fabulous Jumping Card Trick” in Richard Kaufman's Complete Works of Derek Dingle, 1982, p. 216, and David Williamson's “The Famous Three-Card Trick” in Williamson's Wonders, 1989, p. 67, also by Kaufman.
Also see Eleven-Bill Trick.