The inner slot principle of this box dates back to at least the late 1800s, when it was originally used in a small cup. A description of it appears under the title “The Black Cup” in The Amateur Magician by Dazley Theobald, p. 18. The publication date of this book is undetermined, but it is estimated to be in the 1880s.
The inner slot principle was adopted to coin boxes sometime in the twentieth century. Ellison Polland describes such a box, of unknown attribution, in Wonderful Routines of Magic, 1969, p. 126. And Allen Zingg, in Sam's: The Magic of Sam Schwartz, 2003, p. 71, reports of such a box coming out of Holland in 1971.