Conjuring Credits

The Origins of Wonder

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What is "Conjuring Credits"?

On this site, the history and origins of magical sleights, plots and concepts are examined and traced back to their known origins.

How it came to be and who provides the content?

In the mid-1980s, Stephen Minch and Max Maven began keeping a file of their research and others' into the history of conjuring. Desiring to share this information with other researchers, writers and students of performance magic, they envisioned a free website that would make this possible. Roberto Giobbi suggested that Denis Behr might be willing to create such a site and organize the information into searchable articles. Denis accepted the daunting task and took it further than Minch and Maven had envisioned, by installing valuable links to the Conjuring Arts Research Center's AskAlexander and his own Conjuring Archive, making the site an extremely powerful research tool.

As the site was being developed and refined, Behr and Aurelio Paviato added further information, and William Kalush and Dan Smith generously provided their resources, talents and time to the project.

We thank in advance all those who will join us in this effort to document the history of theatrical conjuring, and we hope this select group includes you!

Please Note: Don't take anything for granted. Research is constantly updated. Check the sources, look it up, verify the information! No site can cover everything, and this one is no exception. Use it in conjunction with other sites, such as Genii's MagicPedia, Denis Behr's Conjuring Archive and AskAlexander. And if something looks wrong:

How you can help!

If you have any information you would like to share, or if you find errors on this site (factual, typos, corrupted links, etc.), please contact You will find a direct link on the right side of the credit articles for reporting those errors. Help us make this site better.

Those links lead directly to the pages discussed in the context of a given article. Whether you can open the links depends on the membership level you have at ConjuringArts. Please observe that some links are not available at any membership level, due to reasons of copyright, and can only be accessed at the facilities in New York itself. However, the majority of works cited on the Conjuring Credits site can be viewed.

The information on this site is copyrighted and, like most legal documents, the language may make the average person’s head swim. Here are simple answers to the questions most users will have:

Can I use information on this site in my publication?

Yes. The main purpose of this site is to provide information for researchers and authors of theatrical magic. The only restriction is on reasonable quantity and purpose. Think “fair use”. It is fair use when you quote one or a few articles or parts of articles from the Conjuring Credits site in your publication, whether that publication is intended for sale or not. It is not fair use to take all or a large number of articles from this site and claim the material as your work or publish it for profit. Most people intuitively understand what a fair and reasonable number of articles is and when they are taking unfair advantage. If you aren’t certain which side of the line you are on, contact us.

What do I have to do if I use material from the Conjuring Credits Website in my publication?

If you wish to quote from material on the Conjuring Credits Website, mention in your publication that the material is copyrighted by Conjuring Credits and is used with the permission of Conjuring Credits. If you substantially rewrite the information, such a statement isn’t necessary, but a mention of your source would be appreciated. If you credit us with information or quote information from Conjuring Credits, do not alter its meaning or intent. Make clear in your publication the changes you have made.

If you have any questions or doubts about the legality of using material from this Website, please write us at

For Gibecière, the premier journal of conjuring history, and other resources, go to

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